Introduction to Chemistry I:
The purpose of this course is to provide the first semester of a two-semester introductory course in chemistry for non-science majors. The first part of the course includes mastery of topics in measurement, dimensional analysis, classification of matter, chemical structure, chemical formula and equation writing, and stoichiometry. The remainder of the semester is spent in a survey of physical applications to chemical systems including gas laws, kinetic theory, solutions, equilibrium, acids and bases, and nuclear chemistry with emphasis world applications
The goal is for the following general objectives to be achieved:
1. Understand and be able to explain the general principles, laws, and theories of chemistry that are discussed and presented throughout the semester
2. Use critical thinking and logic in the solution of problems
3. Apply learned chemistry skills to new situations
4. Demonstrate an understanding of chemistry through technological advancement
5. Apply chemical principles in the laboratory setting
6. Develop independent and cooperative learning skills
7. Recognize and acquire attitudes that are characteristic of the successful worker regardless of the major field of study
8. Develop an awareness of the value of chemistry in our daily living
Student Learning Outcomes:
After studying all materials and resources presented in the course, the student will be able to:
1. Define the fundamental properties of matter.
2. Classify matter, compounds, and chemical reactions.
3. Determine the basic nuclear and electronic structure of atoms.
4. Identify trends in chemical and physical properties of the elements using the Periodic Table.
5. Describe the bonding in and the shape of simple molecules and ions.
6. Solve stoichiometric problems.
7. Write chemical formulas.
8. Write and balance equations.
9. Use the rules of nomenclature to name chemical compounds.
10. Define the types and characteristics of chemical reactions.
11. Use the gas laws and basics of the Kinetic Molecular Theory to solve gas problems.
12. Determine the role of energy in physical changes chemical reactions.
13. Convert units of measure and demonstrate dimensional analysis skills.
14. State the characteristics of liquids and solids.
15. Articulate the importance of intermolecular interactions and predict trends in physical properties. 16. Identify the characteristics of acids, bases, and salts, and solve problems based on their quantitative relationships.
17. Identify oxidation-reduction equations.
18. Discuss rates of chemical reactions and the dependence on concentration, time, and temperature. 19. Apply the principles of equilibrium to aqueous systems using Le Chatelier’s Principle to predict the effects of concentration, pressure, and temperature changes on equilibrium mixtures.
20. Define nuclear decay processes.
Students in all sections of this course will learn the following content:
1. Describe the scientific method.
2. Describe good laboratory behavior.
3. Describe the safety criteria and safety features of your lab.
4. Identify from the lab drawer any specific item of glassware and its proper use and function.
5. Describe the proper use of an analytical balance.
6. Define and distinguish between the term’s precision, uncertainty, and accuracy.
7. Make and record measurements to the proper instrument precision.
8. Conduct laboratory experiments safely and accurately.
9. Report on laboratory findings using proper methods.
10. Give the metric units for mass, length, and volume.
11. Perform English to metric conversion equivalents (and vice versa) for mass, length, and volume.
12. Give the exponential numerical equivalents for the metric prefixes: a. nano, micro, milli, centi, deci, deca, hecta, kilo, and mega
13. Distinguish between mass and weight.
14. Distinguish between heat and temperature.
15. Use the unit analysis (factor-label) method in good written form to perform conversion calculations. 16. Define, distinguish, and correctly classify examples of:
a. Physical and chemical properties of matter
b. elements, compounds, and mixtures
c. metals, nonmetals, and metalloids
d. solid, liquid, and gaseous phases of matter
e. atoms, ions, and molecules
f. homogeneous and heterogeneous materials
17. Write the names, symbols and charges for common chemical elements and polyatomic compounds. (See list provided by instructor)
18. Give the correct symbols for the seven common elements that exist as diatomic molecules.
19. Identify the purpose and broad organization of the chemical periodic table.
20. Write the symbols for the common monoatomic ions, recognizing the ion charge from the periodic chart.
21. Explain the use of the formula E = m x sp.ht. x Dt. Clearly define the quantity represented by each symbol and the proper units of measurement for the quantity. Use the formula to compute information from a calorimetry experiment.
22. Write a thorough description of the development of thought shaping early theory of atomic structure.
23. Describe the present-day simple electron-proton-neutron model for a many electron atom.
24. Explain how an atom acquires a net charge to become an ion.
25. Define: isotope, atomic number, atomic mass (weight), and atomic mass unit.
26. Give the name, symbol, and charge for some common polyatomic ions. See list.
27. Write the correct formulas for compounds, given the names; write the correct names for compounds, given the formulas.
28. Define and distinguish between: a. Binary and ternary compounds b. common and systematic chemical names
29. Describe the energy level nature for the electrons in many-electron atoms.
30. Describe the historical discovery of electron energy levels and give an overview of the theoretical development, Define atomic orbital.
31. Write electron configurations (spdf) for the first twenty elements of the periodic chart.
32. Relate the electron configurations of elements to their position in the periodic chart (row and column).
33. Draw Lewis dot diagrams for representative elements.
34. Define electronegativity.
35. Describe the periodic trends in the properties of elements in the periodic chart.
36. Define and give examples of ionic and covalent bonds. Identify compounds as ionic or covalent.
37. Draw Lewis structures for simple molecules.
38. Define: atomic mass, formula mass, molar mass, empirical formula molecular formula, Avogadro’s number.
39. Use the unit analysis method to convert between grams, molecules, atoms, and moles of a substance.
40. Describe what a “chemical equation” is and explain why it is an important tool in the study of chemistry.
41. Explain what we mean by each of the following: reactants, products, coefficients, balanced equation, word equation, skeleton equation.
42. Name and describe four types of chemical reactions.
43. Explain what is meant by a “combustion reaction”. Explain why we say that hydrogen is combustible but will not support combustion. Cite experimental evidence.
44. Calculate related amounts in chemical reactions from balanced chemical equations
a. Given reactant moles, find product mass or moles.
b. Given reactant mass, find product mass or moles.
c. Given one reactant or product amount, find related reactant or product amount.
d. Given two or more reactant amounts, determine and correctly use limiting reactant information.
e. Given percent yield, determine related reactant or product amount.
45. State and solve problems using Boyle's Law, Charles Law, Gay-Lussac's Law, Avogadro’s Law, and the Combined Gas Law.
46. State and apply Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures.
47. State and solve problems using the Ideal Gas Law
48. Recognize the values for STP and molar volume at STP.
49. Compare ideal gases and real gases.
50. Using the Kinetic Molecular Theory distinguish among gases, liquids, and solids.
51. Define: evaporation, vapor pressure, surface tension, boiling point, freezing point, and melting point. 52. Describe the importance of hydrogen bonding.
53. List important sources of air and water pollution.
54. Define solubility and describe the solvation process; define saturated and unsaturated.
55. Define molarity; solve problems computing moles, mass, and concentrations of solutions.
56. Define acids and bases. Give typical reactions, especially neutralization reactions.
57. Describe the titration process.
58. Given concentration of acids or bases, calculate the pH and the pOH..
59. Use the collision theory to explain how the rate of a chemical reaction is influenced by temperature, catalyst, concentration, and particle size of reactants.
60. Define chemical equilibrium in terms of a reversible reaction and predict the equilibrium position of a reaction from a given K value.
61. State Le Chatelier's principle and use it to predict changes in the equilibrium position due to changes in concentration and temperature.
62. Describe how buffer solutions control pH in biological systems.
63. Define oxidation and reduction reactions; describe an oxidizing agent and a reducing agent.
64. Describe alpha, beta, and gamma rays.
65. Differentiate between fission and fusion.
66. Describe the biological effects of radioactive substances.
Introduction to Organic and Biochemistry:
Define organic chemistry.
Write the structures, names and important reactions of alkanes and cycloalkanes.
Recognize isomerism in organic compounds.
Write structures, names, and important reactions for unsaturated hydrocarbons.
Write structures, names, and important reactions for alcohols, phenols, and ethers.
Write structures, names, and important reactions for aldehydes and ketones.
Write structures, names, and important reactions for carboxylic acids and esters.
Write structures, names, and important reactions for amines and amides.
Recognize and draw structures for various carbohydrates. Describe the biological functions of carbohydrates.
Describe the physical and chemical properties of lipids. Draw and recognize structures for various types of lipids. Describe the function of lipids in biological organisms.
Recognize the structures of amino acids and proteins. Describe the function of proteins and amino acids in biological systems.
Describe the mechanism of enzyme activity.
Recognize the structure of various nucleotides and nucleic acids. Describe the function of nucleic acids in transmitting genetic information and in protein synthesis.
Describe the function and of various macro and micronutrients in biological systems.
Describe the various steps in carbohydrate metabolism.
Describe the various steps in lipid and amino acid metabolism.
Compare and contrast the nature and function of various body fluids and their relation to pH levels.
Atoms, molecules, bonding, polar and nonpolar molecules, intermolecular forces, solubilities, Lewis structures, preliminary ideas of resonance, arrow formalism, acids, and bases.
Introduction to orbitals, molecular orbital description of bonding, hybridization, structure of methane.
Alkanes- conformational analysis, structural isomerism and nomenclature, alkyl groups.
Alkenes- structure and bonding, nomenclature, E-Z notation, hydrogenation, relative stabilities. Alkynes- structure and bonding, relative stabilities, double and triple bonds in rings.
Dienes and the allyl system, conjugation, introduction to the concept of aromaticity. UV spectroscopy.
Stereochemistry- chirality, enantiomerism, R-S notation, diastereomerism, optical resolution.
Ring systems- strain, stereochemistry of cyclohexane, conformational analysis of cyclohexane and its substituted derivatives, bicyclic and polycyclic compounds.
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.
Infrared (IR) spectroscopy.
Alkyl halides, substitution reactions of alkyl halides- SN 2 and SN 1 mechanisms. Elimination reactions- E1 and E2 mechanisms.
Overview of substitution and elimination reactions, oxidation of alcohols, rates and equilibria, syntheses.
Acids and bases revisited. Additions to alkenes- mechanism of hydrogen halide additions, regiochemistry, resonance effects, carbocation stabilities, addition of other unsymmetrical reagents, hydroboration, dimerization, and polymerization of alkenes.
Carbocation rearrangements, addition of halogens to alkenes, oxymercuration, epoxidation and chemistry of oxiranes, cyclopropanation, carbenes, ozonolysis, alkene oxidations with permanganate and osmium tetroxide, addition reactions of alkynes.