Writing

K-8

Course Outline

 

Kindergarten:

 

Language Skills: Traditional poems, nursery rhymes, and riddles help students develop comprehension, vocabulary, and a love of language. Offline vocabulary instruction is accompanied by online review and practice. All About Me lays the foundations of the writing process as students brainstorm, discuss, illustrate, write, and share ideas with others.

 

Handwriting: Handwriting Without Tears provides gentle instruction to help students print letters correctly.

 

Language Skills

Unit 1: Colors, Body Parts, and Poems

  • Vocabulary

  • Self-Portraits

  • Readings: "One, Two, Buckle My Shoe"; "I Eat My Peas with Honey"; "Old Mother Hubbard"

Unit 2: Body Parts, Jobs, and Poems

  • Vocabulary

  • How I Use My Arms, Fingers, and Legs

  • When I Grow Up

  • Readings: "Teddy Bear, Teddy Bear"; "Monday's Child"; "Hey, Diddle, Diddle"

Unit 3: Families, Friends, and Poems

  • Vocabulary

  • My Family

  • My Friends

  • Readings: "Open Hydrant"; "The Wheels on the Bus"; "The Secret Place"

Unit 4: Communities, Friends, and Poems

  • Vocabulary

  • My Friends

  • My Neighborhood

  • Readings: "Mary Had a Little Lamb"; "Time to Run"; "Old King Cole"

Unit 5: Colors, Shapes, and Poems

  • Vocabulary

  • My Favorite Color

  • My Favorite Shape

  • Readings: "Engine, Engine, Number Nine"; "How Much Wood Would a Woodchuck Chuck?"; "Baa Baa, Black Sheep"

Unit 6: Kitchens, Food, and Poems

  • Vocabulary

  • My Favorite Shape

  • My Favorite Foods

  • My Favorite Foods

  • Readings: "Jack and Jill"; "Jack Be Nimble"; "Little Jack Horner"

Unit 7: Animals, Subject and Poems

  • Vocabulary

  • My Favorite Animal

  • My Favorite Subject

  • Readings: "Star Bright, Star Light"; "Jack Sprat"; "Evening Red and Morning Gray"

Unit 8: Subject, Reading, and Poems

  • Vocabulary

  • My Favorite Subject

  • My Favorite Book

  • Readings: "Three Blind Mice"; "There Was a Little Girl"; "Mackerel Sky"; "Rain Before Seven"

Unit 9: Travel, Comparison, and Poems

  • Vocabulary

  • My Best Day

  • My Best Friend

  • Readings: "Red at Night, Sailors Delight"; "The Little Elf"; "This Little Pig Goes to Market"

Unit 10: Comparison, Emotions, and Poems

  • Vocabulary

  • My Best Friend

  • Emotions and Feelings

  • Readings: "The Caterpillar"; "Little Miss Muffet"; "Humpty Dumpty"

Unit 11: Location, Opposites, and Poems

  • Vocabulary

  • Playing Inside and Outside

  • Loud and Quiet

  • Readings: "Yankee Doodle"; excerpt from "The Island"; "Little Bo Peep"

Unit 12: Opposites and Poems

  • Vocabulary

  • Loud and Quiet

  • Hot and Cold

  • Readings: "Lady Bug, Lady Bug"; "Little Boy Blue"; "Sing a Song of Sixpence"

Unit 13: Writing, Manners, and Poems

  • Vocabulary

  • A Letter to My Friend

  • A Thank-You Note

  • Readings: "Hushabye, Don't You Cry"; "Bed in Summer"; "A Bear Went Over the Mountain"

Unit 14: Manners, Traffic, and Poems

  • Vocabulary

  • A Thank-You Note

  • Haikus

  • Signs in My Neighborhood

  • Readings: "Peter, Peter, Pumpkin Eater"; "Cat Kisses"

Unit 15: Ordinals, Sequences, and Poems

  • Vocabulary

  • A Race with My Friends

  • My Mornings

  • Readings: "Hickory, Dickory, Dock"; excerpt from "Teddy Bear"; "Patty-Cake, Patty-Cake"

Unit 16: Sequences, Growing, and Poems

  • Vocabulary

  • My Mornings

  • When I Grow Up

  • Finger Games

  • Readings: "The Land of Counterpane"; "Johnny on the Woodpile"

Unit 17: Mamas, Babies, and Poems

  • Vocabulary

  • My Hand and Foot

  • My Body Language

  • Things I Can Do

  • Homographs

  • Readings: excerpt from "The Three Foxes"; excerpt from " A Good Play"; "Three Little Kittens"

Unit 18: Nouns, Adjectives, Review, and Poems

  • Vocabulary

  • Things I Can Do

  • Counting-Out Rhymes

  • What I Have Learned

  • Self-Portrait

  • Readings: "The Storm"; "We're Racing, Racing Down the Walk"

Handwriting

Includes:

  • Appropriate pencil grip

  • Proper line and stroke formation

  • Lower- and uppercase letters

  • Writing dictated letters and numbers

  • Correct direction and order

  • Left-to-right directionality

  • Consistent, grade-appropriate size

  • Placement on baseline

 

1st Grade:

 

Handwriting: Students will further develop their handwriting skills through Handwriting Without Tears. In Semester 1, students will work in the My Printing Book. In Semester 2, students will practice handwriting on their own using the supplied lined paper.

Spelling: There are 18 units in K12 Spelling, which begins in the second semester of Grade 1. Each unit contains five lessons. The first lesson of a unit introduces new Spelling words. In the second and third lessons, you and your students work together to practice the spelling words introduced in the first lesson. There is an online review in Lesson 4 and an offline assessment in Lesson 5. Students will master the spelling skills needed to read and write proficiently.

Vocabulary: Vocabulary exposes students to a wide variety of words. Students will learn, review, and practice words online. There are 18 units in K12 Vocabulary. In the first 8 lessons of each unit, students will study 3 sets of related words. Lesson 9 of each unit is a review of all the words. The 10th lesson is always a Unit Checkpoint, testing students on all the words they studied.

Writing Skills: The program includes 18 alternating units of Grammar, Usage, and Mechanics lessons and Composition lessons. In odd-numbered units, students will learn grammar, usage, and mechanics skills that will help them communicate in standard English. The fourth lesson of each unit is an online review of the unit's skills, and the fifth lesson is an offline assessment. In even-numbered composition units, students will also learn techniques for planning, organizing, and creating different kinds of writing. Each unit starts with a journal assignment that will help get students writing and generating ideas to be used in their writing assignments. The program includes rubrics and sample papers to help evaluate students' work.

 

Handwriting:

  • Appropriate pencil grip

  • Proper line and stroke formation

  • Lower- and uppercase letters

  • Writing dictated letters and numbers

  • Correct direction and order

  • Left-to-right directionality

  • Consistent, grade-appropriate size

  • Placement on baseline

Spelling:

  • Heart Words

  • CVC Words

  • Double Trouble Words

  • Digraph ck

  • Regular Plurals

  • Digraphs th & wh

  • Digraphs sh & ch

  • Ending Blends

  • Beginning Blends

  • Digraph Blends & Trigraphs

  • Oddball Sounds

  • Triple Consonant Blends

  • Long a & I Spelled with a Silent e

  • Long e, o, & u Spelled with a Silent e

  • Short Vowel Sounds with a Silent e

  • Ending –ed

  • Doubling Consonants When Adding –ing

  • Spelling Conventions

Vocabulary:

Unit 1: Weather Words and Multiple Meaning Words

  • Introduce Weather Words

  • Practice Weather Words

  • Introduce Multiple-Meaning Words

  • Practice Multiple-Meaning Words

  • Unit Review and Checkpoint

Unit 2: Homophones and Action Words

  • Introduce Homophones

  • Practice Homophones

  • Introduce Action Words

  • Practice Action Words

  • Unit Review and Checkpoint

Unit 3: Synonyms and Reptiles

  • Introduce Synonyms

  • Practice Synonyms

  • Introduce Reptiles

  • Practice Reptiles

  • Unit Review and Checkpoint

Unit 4: Dictionary Skills and Antonyms

  • Introduce Dictionary Skills and Mealtime Words

  • Practice Dictionary Skills and Mealtime Words

  • Introduce Antonyms

  • Practice Antonyms

  • Unit Review and Checkpoint

Unit 5: Traffic and Travel Words

  • Introduce Traffic Signs

  • Practice Traffic Signs

  • Introduce Travel Words

  • Practice Travel Words

  • Unit Review and Checkpoint

Unit 6: Compound Words and Animals

  • Introduce Compound Words

  • Practice Compound Words

  • Introduce Animals

  • Practice Animals

  • Unit Review and Checkpoint

Unit 7: Time and Collective Names

  • Introduce Time Words

  • Practice Time Words

  • Introduce Collective Names

  • Practice Collective Names

  • Unit Review and Checkpoint

Unit 8: Related Verbs, Related Adjectives, and Homographs

  • Introduce Related Verbs

  • Practice Related Verbs

  • Introduce Adjectives

  • Practice Adjectives

  • Introduce Homographs

  • Practice Homographs

  • Unit Review and Checkpoint

Unit 9: Abbreviations and Calendar Words

  • Introduce Abbreviations

  • Practice Abbreviations

  • Introduce Calendar Words

  • Practice Calendar Words

  • Unit Review and Checkpoint

Unit 10: Inflectional Endings, Verb Tenses, and Multiple-Meaning Words

  • Introduce Inflectional Endings and Verb Tenses

  • Practice Inflectional Endings and Verb Tenses

  • Introduce Multiple-Meaning Words

  • Practice Multiple-Meaning Words

  • Unit Review and Checkpoint

Unit 11: Compound Words and School and City Words

  • Introduce School Compound Words

  • Practice School Compound Words

  • Introduce Compound Words

  • Practice Compound Words

  • Introduce City Words

  • Practice City Words

  • Unit Review and Checkpoint

Unit 12: Math Words and Antonyms

  • Introduce Math Words

  • Practice Math Words

  • Introduce Math Antonyms

  • Practice Math Antonyms

  • Introduce Antonyms

  • Practice Antonyms

  • Unit Review and Checkpoint

Unit 13: Related Verbs and Geography Terms

  • Introduce Related Verbs

  • Practice Related Verbs

  • Introduce Geography Terms

  • Practice Geography Terms

  • Unit Review and Checkpoint

Unit 14: Glossary Skills and Space and Science Words

  • Introduce Glossary Skills and Space Words

  • Practice Glossary Skills and Space Words

  • Introduce Science Words

  • Practice Science Words

  • Unit Review and Checkpoint

Unit 15: Homophones, Dictionary Skills, and Fairy Tale Words

  • Introduce Homophones

  • Practice Homophones

  • Introduce Dictionary Skills with Fairy Tale Words

  • Practice Dictionary Skills with Fairy Tale Words

  • Unit Review and Checkpoint

Unit 16: Synonyms and Plural Inflectional Endings

  • Introduce Synonyms

  • Practice Synonyms

  • Introduce Plural Inflectional Endings

  • Practice Plural Inflectional Endings

  • Unit Review and Checkpoint

Unit 17: Related Adjectives and Animal Terms

  • Introduce Related Adjectives

  • Practice Related Adjectives

  • Introduce Male and Female Animal Terms

  • Practice Male and Female Animal Terms

  • Unit Review and Checkpoint

Unit 18: Measurement and Sports Terms

  • Introduce Measurement Terms

  • Practice Measurement Terms

  • Introduce Sports Terms

  • Practice Sports Terms

  • Unit Review and Checkpoint

Writing Skills:

  • Complete Sentences

  • Write Strong Sentences

  • Kinds of Sentences

  • Follow and Write a Sequence

  • Nouns

  • Write to Inform or Explain

  • Verbs

  • Friendly Letter

  • Pronouns

  • Opinion Paragraph

  • Verb Tense

  • Write About Information: Heritage

  • Adjectives

  • Experience Story: Write a Story About You

  • Capital Letters and Punctuation

  • Write a Response to a Book

  • Write Your Own Story

  • Semester Reviews and Checkpoints

 

2nd Grade:

  • Writing Skills: Students learn about parts of speech, usage, capitalization, and punctuation, then apply this knowledge as they write sentences and paragraphs. Students are introduced to the process of writing, as they pre-write, draft, revise, and proofread their work before they share it with others. Written products include letters, poems, literature reviews, research reports, and presentations.

  • Vocabulary: Students increase their vocabulary through word study, comprehension, and word analysis, then apply their knowledge in a variety of authentic contexts.

  • Spelling: Students continue their exploration of spelling conventions with lessons in sound-symbol relationships and patterns.

  • Handwriting: Handwriting Without Tears helps students develop printing skills and, if appropriate, begin cursive handwriting.

Writing Skills

Unit 1: Complete Sentences

  • Course Introduction: What Is a Sentence? Sentence Beginnings and Endings

Unit 2: Write Sentences

  • How to Evaluate Writing; Recognize and Fix Sentences; Change the Sentence; Fix the Sentences; Write Sentences

Unit 3: Kinds of Sentences

  • Statements; Questions; Exclamations and Commands

Unit 4: Write Different Types of Sentences

  • Tell Me About It; Ask Me About It; Shout About It; Revise Sentences; Write Different Types of Sentences

Unit 5: Nouns

  • What Is a Noun? Common and Proper Nouns; More Nouns

Unit 6: Write Steps

  • Step-by-Step; Details Count; Follow Steps; Organize Ideas; Write Steps Using a Graphic Organizer

Unit 7: Verbs

  • What Is a Verb? Action Verbs; Other Verbs

Unit 8: Sequence Events

  • Beginning, Middle, and End; Use Order Words; What Happens Next?; Organize Ideas; Write a Sequence

Unit 9: Capitalization and Punctuation in a Letter

  • Capital Letters in the Heading of a Letter; Commas in the Heading of a Letter; Greeting and Closing of a Letter

Unit 10: Write Friendly Letters

  • What Is a Friendly Letter? Friendly Letter Format; Organize a Letter; Address an Envelope; Write a Friendly Letter

Unit 11: Singular and Plural Nouns

  • One or Many? Form Plural Nouns; More Plural Nouns

Unit 12: Write Thank You Notes

  • What Is a Thank You Note? Use the Friendly Letter Format; Thank You Note Plan; Send a Thank You Note; Write a Thank You Note

Unit 13: Subjects and Verbs

  • Nouns and Verbs; Singular Nouns and Verbs; Plural Nouns and Verbs

Unit 14: Write a Paragraph

  • What Is a Paragraph? Choose a Topic; Create Supporting Details; Draft a Paragraph; Write a Paragraph

Unit 15: Pronouns

  • What Is a Pronoun? Plural Pronouns; More Pronouns

Unit 16: Complete and Revise a Paragraph

  • Revise Your Draft: Introductions; Get from Point to Point: Transitions; Write a Conclusion; Revise for Content; Revise a Paragraph

Unit 17: Review and Checkpoint

  • Sentences, Nouns, and Verbs; Letters, Singular and Plural Nouns, Subjects and Verbs, and Pronouns

Unit 18: Polish and Publish a Paragraph

  • What Is Proofreading? Use a Dictionary; Use a Thesaurus; Use a Checklist; Publish Your Work

Unit 19: Adjectives

  • What Is an Adjective? Descriptive Adjectives; Articles

Unit 20: Write Descriptively

  • Show Me; Plan a Description; Organize Your Writing; Revise a Description; Polish and Publish a Description

Unit 21: Adverbs

  • What Is an Adverb? More Adverbs; Adjective or Adverb?

Unit 22: Write Poetry

  • Respond to Poems that Describe; Poetic Forms and Subjects; Draft a Poem; Revise Your Poem; Polish and Publish Your Poem

Unit 23: Verb Tense

  • Tense of Verbs; Past Tense Verbs; More Past Tense Verbs

Unit 24: Write an Experience Story

  • What Is an Experience Story? Brainstorm an Experience Story; Plan an Experience Story; Draft Dialogue; Complete an Experience Story

Unit 25: Quotations

  • What Are Quotations? Quotations and Quotation Marks; More Quotations

Unit 26: Revise and Publish an Experience Story

  • Revise for Focus; Revise for Content; Revise for Variety in Sentences; Proofread and Polish Your Experience Story; Publish Your Experience Story

Unit 27: Possessive Nouns

  • What Is a Possessive Noun? Plural Possessive Nouns; More Plural Possessive Nouns

Unit 28: Write about Literature

  • What Is a Book Review? Plan a Summary for a Book Review; Opinion Statements and Support for a Book Review; Draft a Book Review; Write a Book Review

Unit 29: Names, Initials, and Titles

  • Names and Initials of People; Titles of People; Place Names

Unit 30: Make a Presentation

  • What Is a Presentation? Create a Visual; Develop a Presentation; Practice a Presentation; Deliver a Presentation

Unit 31: Commas and Apostrophes

  • Words in a Series; Contractions; More Contractions

Unit 32: Research Skills

  • What Is Research? Lesson References; Take Notes; Create a Plan

Unit 33: More Capital Letters

  • Months and Days; Holidays; Product Names and More

Unit 34: Write About Information

  • State Your Topic; Write the Body; Introductions; Conclusions

Unit 35: Review and Checkpoint

  • Adjectives, Adverbs, Verb Tense, and Quotations; Possessive Nouns, Capital Letters, Commas, and Contractions

Unit 36: Revise and Publish Your Work

  • Revise from Feedback; Revise for Content; Revise for Organization; Proofread and Polish Your Report; Publish Your Report

Vocabulary

Includes:

  • Determining word meanings

  • Prefixes and suffixes

  • Roots

  • Synonyms and antonyms

  • Compound words

  • Glossaries, thesauruses, and beginner dictionaries

  • Contractions

  • Literal and non-literal meanings

  • Real-life connections between words and their uses

  • Homographs and homophones

Spelling

Includes:

  • Digraphs

  • Beginning and ending blends

  • Double trouble endings

  • R-controlled vowels

  • Long vowel spellings

  • Long and short double o spellings

  • Long e and i spelled y

  • Open and closed syllables

  • Prefixes and suffixes

  • Multisyllabic words

  • Unusual plurals

Handwriting

Includes:

  • Writing dictated letters and numbers

  • Correct direction and order

  • Placement on the baseline

  • Consistent, grade-appropriate size

  • Left-to-right and top-to-bottom directionality

  • Appropriate spacing

  • Appropriate pencil grip

 

 

3rd Grade:

  • Handwriting: Students will further develop their handwriting skills through Handwriting Without Tears. In Semester 1, students will work in the Cursive Handwriting book. In Semester 2, students will practice cursive on their own as they complete assigned work in other Language Arts programs.

  • Spelling: There are 36 units in K12 Spelling. Each unit contains five lessons. The first lesson of a unit introduces new spelling words. In the second and third lessons, you and your students work together to practice the spelling words introduced in the first lesson. These first three lessons are offline. The fourth lesson in each unit is an online review activity. Finally, the fifth lesson consists of an offline Unit Checkpoint that checks students' mastery of the spelling words. Each lesson is designed to take approximately 15 minutes. Students will master the spelling skills needed to read and write proficiently.

  • Vocabulary: Vocabulary exposes students to a wide variety of words. Students will learn, review, and practice words online. K12 Vocabulary is made up of 18 units of 10 lessons each. Lessons are entirely online. Each lesson should take about 10 minutes. In the first 8 lessons of each unit, students will study 3 sets of related words. Lesson 9 of each unit is a review of all the words. Lesson 10 is always a Unit Checkpoint, testing students on all the words they studied.

  • Writing Skills: Writing Skills units combine online and offline activities to teach students about grammar, usage, and mechanics, as well as how to plan, write, revise, proofread, and publish various forms of writing. For example, in Unit 4, students will learn about combining sentences and strategies for writing a personal story. Most units end with an assessment on language skills, along with rubrics and sample papers to help evaluate students' writing. There are also four Critical Skills Practice units that help students apply their knowledge of language, vocabulary, spelling, and writing strategies to answer questions like those on standardized tests, including planning and writing a response to a prompt.

 

Handwriting

  • Cursive Writing

  • Appropriate pencil grip

  • Proper stroke formation and letter connections

  • Lower- and uppercase letters

  • Writing dictated letters, numbers, words, and sentences

  • Consistent, grade-appropriate size

  • Placement on baseline

Spelling

Includes:

  • Heart Words

  • Short Vowel Sounds

  • Suffixes -s & -es

  • -ng & -nk Words

  • Long a Spellings

  • Long i Spellings

  • Long o Spellings

  • Long e Spellings

  • Long u Spellings

  • Double o Spellings

  • /ow/ & /ou/ Spellings

  • /ur/ Spellings

  • Long e and Long i Spelled y

  • Vowel Suffixes on Words Ending in y

  • Dropping Silent e Before Vowel Suffixes

  • Doubling Consonants Before Adding Vowel Suffixes

  • Soft c & g Spellings

  • /aw/ & /z/ Spellings

  • Triple Consonant Blends

  • Digraphs and Trigraphs

  • Contractions and Consonant Suffixes

  • Consonant Suffixes

  • Prefixes

  • /l/ or /ul/ Spellings

  • r-Controlled Vowels

  • /aw/ Spellings

  • Suffix -ed

  • Suffix -ing

  • Silent Consonants

  • Words Ending in ic

  • Homophones

  • Sounds of the ea Spelling

Vocabulary

Unit 1: Compound Words and Math Words

  • Introduce Compound Words

  • Practice Compound Words

  • Introduce Math Words

  • Practice Math Words

  • Unit Review and Checkpoint

Unit 2: Homographs and Aquatic Words

  • Introduce Homographs

  • Practice Homographs

  • Introduce Aquatic Words

  • Practice Aquatic Words

  • Unit Review and Checkpoint

Unit 3: Synonyms, Dictionary Skills, and Abbreviations

  • Introduce Synonyms

  • Practice Synonyms

  • Introduce Dictionary Skills

  • Practice Dictionary Skills

  • Introduce Abbreviations

  • Practice Abbreviations

  • Unit Review and Checkpoint

Unit 4: Antonyms, Prefixes, and Multiple-Meaning Words

  • Introduce Antonyms and Prefix -in

  • Practice Antonyms and Prefix -in

  • Introduce Multiple-Meaning Words and Parts of Speech

  • Practice Multiple-Meaning Words and Parts of Speech

  • Unit Review and Checkpoint

Unit 5: Suffixes and Homophones

  • Introduce Suffix -able

  • Practice Suffix -able

  • Introduce Homophones

  • Practice Homophones

  • Unit Review and Checkpoint

Unit 6: Weather Words and Suffixes

  • Introduce Weather Words

  • Practice Weather Words

  • Introduce Parts of Speech and Suffix -or

  • Practice Parts of Speech and Suffix -or

  • Unit Review and Checkpoint

Unit 7: Suffixes and Contractions

  • Introduce Suffixes -er and -est

  • Practice Suffixes -er and -est

  • Introduce Contractions

  • Practice Contractions

  • Unit Review and Checkpoint

Unit 8: Suffixes and Shades of Meaning

  • Introduce Suffix -tion

  • Practice Suffix -tion

  • Introduce Shades of Meaning

  • Practice Shades of Meaning

  • Unit Review and Checkpoint

Unit 9: Solar System Words

  • Introduce Solar System Words

  • Practice Solar System Words

  • Unit Review and Checkpoint

Unit 10: Compound Words, Acronyms, and Abbreviations

  • Introduce Compound Words

  • Practice Compound Words

  • Introduce Acronyms and Abbreviations

  • Practice Acronyms and Abbreviations

  • Unit Review and Checkpoint

Unit 11: Latin Roots and Homographs

  • Introduce Latin Roots

  • Practice Latin Roots

  • Introduce Homographs

  • Practice Homographs

  • Unit Review and Checkpoint

Unit 12: Synonyms and Abbreviations

  • Introduce Synonyms

  • Practice Synonyms

  • Introduce Abbreviations

  • Practice Abbreviations

  • Unit Review and Checkpoint

Unit 13: Prefixes and Multiple-Meaning Words

  • Introduce Prefixes pre- and mis-

  • Practice Prefixes pre- and mis-

  • Introduce Prefixes re- and dis-

  • Practice Prefixes re- and dis-

  • Introduce Multiple Meanings and Parts of Speech

  • Practice Multiple Meanings and Parts of Speech

  • Unit Review and Checkpoint

Unit 14: Suffixes and Antonyms

  • Introduce Suffixes -ful and -less

  • Practice Suffixes -ful and -less

  • Introduce Antonyms with the Suffix -ly

  • Practice Antonyms with the Suffix -ly

  • Introduce Suffixes -y, -er, and -est

  • Practice Suffixes -y, -er, and -est

  • Unit Review and Checkpoint

Unit 15: Categories and Homophones

  • Introduce Categories

  • Practice Categories

  • Introduce Homophones

  • Practice Homophones

  • Unit Review and Checkpoint

Unit 16: Dictionary Skills and Contractions

  • Introduce Dictionary Skills

  • Practice Dictionary Skills

  • Introduce Contractions

  • Practice Contractions

  • Unit Review and Checkpoint

Unit 17: Suffix -ous and Shades of Meaning

  • Introduce Suffix -ous

  • Practice Suffix -ous

  • Introduce Shades of Meaning

  • Practice Shades of Meaning

  • Unit Review and Checkpoint

Unit 18: Literal and Nonliteral Meanings and Latin and Greek Roots

  • Introduce Literal and Nonliteral Meanings

  • Practice Literal and Nonliteral Meanings

  • Introduce Latin and Greek Roots

  • Practice Latin and Greek Roots

  • Unit Review and Checkpoint

Writing Skills

Includes:

  • Journals

  • Sentences

  • Paragraphs

  • Sentence Combining and Personal Story

  • Critical Skills Practice

  • Share Information in a Letter

  • Nouns and Informative Essay

  • Verbs and Persuasive Essay

  • Turn a Persuasive Essay into a Business Letter

  • Quotations and Short Research Project

  • Pronouns and Book Review

  • Book Review Presentation

  • Agreement and Plan a Research Report

  • Adjectives and Write a Research Report

  • Adverbs and Research Report Presentation

  • Capital Letters, Punctuation, and Forms

  • Verb Tense and Plan a Short Story

  • Other Parts of Speech and Write a Short Story

  • Semester Reviews and Checkpoints

 

4th Grade:

LANGUAGE SKILLS

  • Composition—Students practice writing as a process (from planning to proofreading) as they write a report, a book review, a persuasive essay, poetry, a news article, and more.

  • Grammar, Usage, and Mechanics—Students learn more about sentence structure, parts of speech, punctuation, capitalization, and usage. They begin sentence analysis and diagramming.

  • Vocabulary—Students develop and expand vocabulary through online instruction that incorporates context and word relationships.

  • Spelling—Students understand sound-symbol relationships and spelling patterns, and they recognize base words and roots in related words.

Students learn to identify and analyze literary elements such as character, plot, theme, and setting. The emphasis is on classic literature, including episodes from Robinson Crusoe, Gulliver's Travels, the legends of King Arthur, and folktales from many lands. Students read works of nonfiction on scientific and historical topics, as well as novels they choose from a long list of such classics as The Cricket in Times Square and My Side of the Mountain. Throughout the curriculum and in specified assessments, students will practice the skills and question types they will find on many standardized tests.

LANGUAGE SKILLS

Grammar, Usage, and Mechanics

Sentences
  • Identify and form four kinds of sentences: declarative, interrogative, imperative, and exclamatory.

  • Use the appropriate end punctuation mark for each kind of sentence.

  • Identify the subject and predicate of a sentence.

  • Identify compound subjects and predicates.

  • Identify direct objects.

  • Analyze and diagram simple sentences.

Punctuation and Capitalization
  • Use periods after initials and some abbreviations.

  • Use postal abbreviations for states, without a period.

  • Use commas in direct address.

  • Use commas with yes or no.

  • Use commas separating words in a series.

  • Use commas in direct quotations.

  • Use apostrophe to show possession.

  • Use apostrophes in contractions.

  • Use quotation marks for direct quotations.

  • Capitalize first word in a sentence, proper nouns, and names of months, days of the week, and holidays.

  • Capitalize the first word in a direct quotation.

  • Capitalize abbreviations of proper nouns, initials, and important words in titles.

Nouns
  • Identify proper and common nouns.

  • Identify singular and plural nouns, regular and irregular.

  • Form singular and plural possessive nouns.

  • Identify nouns used as subjects and direct objects.

Pronouns
  • Identify and understand usage of personal pronouns.

  • Identify and use singular and plural pronouns.

  • Use pronouns as subjects and direct objects.

  • Distinguish correct usage of I and me, and we and us.

  • Identify and use possessive pronouns.

Adjectives
  • Identify adjectives and their functions (describe a noun, tell what kind, tell how many).

  • Identify and use possessive adjectives.

  • Use the correct form of an adjective to compare two nouns, or to compare three or more nouns.

  • Use comparative forms of good and bad (better and best, worse and worst).

  • Identify and use demonstrative adjectives (this, that, these, those).

  • Identify a, an, and the as articles.

Verbs
  • Identify verbs in a sentence.

  • Identify and use action verbs, being verbs, and linking verbs.

  • Identify helping and main verbs in sentences.

  • Identify and use regular and irregular verbs.

  • Identify and form principal parts of verbs (present, present participle, past, past participle).

  • Use correct forms of:

    • begin, beginning, began, begun

    • break, breaking, broke, broken

    • choose, choosing, chose, chosen

    • do, doing, did, done

    • Identify and use simple tenses: present, past, future.

    • Identify and form the present progressive tense.

    • Identify and form the past progressive tense.

    • Understand that a subject and verb must agree in number (singular or plural).

    • Correctly use:

      • is, am, are, was, were

      • do and does

      • there is and there are

Adverbs
  • Identify adverbs and understand their functions (modifies a verb, adjective, or another adverb).

  • Identify and use adverbs of time, place, and manner.

  • Use correct forms of adverbs to make comparisons.

  • Use correct forms of good and well; no, not, and never.

Letter Writing

  • Identify and correctly write the parts of a social (friendly) letter.

  • Address an envelope.

Word Study Skills

  • Understand how to locate words in a dictionary and use dictionary entries.

  • Replace words with synonyms.

  • Identify antonyms to given words.

  • Use a thesaurus to find synonyms and antonyms.

  • Use the following homophones correctly:

    • to, too, two

    • their, there, and they're

Vocabulary

  • Use context to determine and develop definitions for unknown words.

  • Compare and correct personal definitions using dictionary definitions.

  • Use online and print dictionaries, synonyms, antonyms, and word origin clues to aid in comprehension and mastery of vocabulary.

  • Create personal relationships with words through original sentences and proper use of words.

  • Understand and apply word definitions.

COMPOSITION

Writing as a Process

  • Understand and practice writing as a process (prewriting, drafting, revising, proofreading, publishing).

  • Use technology to draft, revise, and publish original writing.

Writing Guided Journal Entries

  • Distinguish diaries from journals.

  • Use a journal to list possibilities for topics to write about.

  • Describe a place or object in a journal entry.

  • Respond in the journal to a cartoon or other clipping.

  • Find and record expressions and quotations in the journal.

  • Identify four kinds of paragraphs: factual, descriptive, persuasive, narrative.

  • Develop paragraphs with a topic sentence and supporting details that relate to the topic.

  • Plan and write a short essay based on a journal entry.

Writing a Report

  • Choose and narrow a topic for a report.

  • Find sources for a report.

  • Gather information using library and Internet sources.

  • Compile a bibliography.

  • Organize facts into an outline.

  • Write an effective introduction and conclusion.

  • Revise the report to improve content, organization, clarity, and word choices.

  • Proofread and publish the report.

Writing a Book Review

  • Analyze a sample book review.

  • Summarize the book to be reviewed.

  • Gather information about the author.

  • Evaluate the plot, characters, and setting.

  • Prepare an outline for the book review.

  • Write, revise, and proofread the review.

Writing to a Prompt

  • Examine different kinds of writing prompts to determine what kind of writing to do.

  • Use the writing process--planning, writing a first draft, revising, and proofreading—to write to a prompt.

  • Practice writing in response to narrative, expository, persuasive, and descriptive prompts.

  • Write to a prompt in a simulated test situation.

Writing Poetry

  • Practice poetic techniques to make any writing more active, imaginative, and vivid.

  • Identify and use imagery, rhythm, alliteration, onomatopoeia, and refrains.

  • Write and revise poems in prescribed forms.

  • Write and revise poems in free verse and in rhyme.

Writing a Persuasive Paper

  • Distinguish fact from opinion.

  • Support arguments with facts, experiences, and reasoning.

  • Anticipate and respond to opposing arguments.

  • Find and use sources to support opinions.

  • Write, revise, proofread, and publish a persuasive paper.

Writing a News Article

  • Identify the who, what, why, where, when and how in a news article.

  • Distinguish between fact and opinion in news stories and editorials.

  • Use research and interviews to gather facts for a news article.

  • Write a lead for a news article.

  • Use and correctly punctuate quotations.

  • Plan and organize a news article.

  • Write, revise, and proofread a news article.

Writing a Play (Optional)

  • Write dialogue and stage directions.

  • Turn a story into a play.

SPELLING

  • Short vowels, prefix re–, and base word magnet

  • Vowel suffixes, prefix un–, and base word create

  • Suffixes–s and –es, prefix dis–, and base word act

  • Ways to spell long a, prefix pre–, and base word port

  • Less common ways to spell long a, prefix sub–, and base word flex

  • Common spellings of long e, prefix dis–, and root struct

  • Long e spelled y, ey; i before e; suffix –en, and root scrib

  • Ways to spell long i, prefix mis–, and root spec

  • Long o spelled oa, ow, oe; prefix in–; and root val

  • Long o spelled mo, o-e; prefix bi–; and root rupt

  • Ways to spell long u, prefix semi–, and root dict

  • Ways to spell /oo/, prefix mid–, and root tract

  • Words with r-controlled vowels, suffix –fore, and root fer

  • Ways to spell /k/, prefix under–, and root vis

  • Words with /kw/ spelled qu and /shul/ spelled cial, prefix de–, and root cur

  • Words with the long e sound spelled i, suffix –able, and root vent

  • Words with c pronounced /s/, suffix –ly, and root scrip

  • Adding vowel and consonant suffixes, suffix –tion, and root cap

  • Adding vowel suffixes, suffix –ist, and root cred

  • Adding vowel suffixes, suffix –or, and root sens

  • /f/ spelled ph and /g/ spelled gu, suffix –ness, and root aud

  • /oi/ spelled oy, suffix –ous, and base word form

  • /ou/ spelled ou or ow, suffix –ous, and root pend

  • /us/ spelled ice and ace, suffix –ous, and root ten

  • Contractions, suffix –ship, and root lect

  • Compound words, suffix –ology, and root vita

  • Homophones, suffix –ive, and root cent

 

5th Grade:

LANGUAGE SKILLS

  • Composition—Students write and collaborate from planning to proofreading, as they narratively write, informatively and persuasively in various forms and genres.

  • Grammar, Usage, and Mechanics—Students learn about parts of speech, punctuation, and research skills. They continue sentence analysis and diagramming,

  • Vocabulary—Students develop and expand vocabulary through online instruction that incorporates context and word relationships.

  • Spelling—Students learn sound-symbol relationships and spelling patterns, identify affixes, and learn how they affect the meaning of words, and recognize base words and roots in related words.

LANGUAGE SKILLS

Grammar, Usage, and Mechanics

Sentences

  • Identify and form four kinds of sentences: declarative, interrogative, imperative, and exclamatory.

  • Rewrite sentences to change their kind (for example, interrogative to declarative) and use the appropriate end punctuation mark for each kind of sentence.

  • Identify the subject and predicate of a sentence.

  • Distinguish complete subjects and predicates from simple subjects and predicates.

  • Distinguish between complete sentences and fragments.

  • Identify subject complements and direct objects.

  • Analyze and diagram sentences.

  • Punctuation and Capitalization

  • Use periods to end most abbreviations and after initials.

  • Form abbreviations for units of measure and two-letter postal abbreviations for states without periods.

  • Use commas to separate words in a series.

  • Use commas with yes and no, and in direct address.

  • Use commas in dates and in geographic place names (e.g., between the name of a city and state).

  • Use commas and quotation marks to set off direct quotations in sentences.

  • Use commas before and, but, and or in compound sentences.

  • Use quotation marks, underlining, or italics as appropriate for titles of stories, poems, books, movies, plays, and works of art.

  • Review capitalization rules (e.g., capitalize the first word of a sentence, proper nouns and adjectives, names, important words in titles, etc.).

Nouns

  • Identify proper and common nouns.

  • Identify singular and plural nouns, regular and irregular.

  • Form singular and plural possessive nouns.

  • Identify nouns used as subjects, subject complements, and direct objects.

Pronouns

  • Identify and understand usage of personal pronouns.

  • Identify and use singular and plural pronouns.

  • Complete sentences with pronouns as subject complements and direct objects.

  • Complete sentences with pronouns as objects of prepositions.

  • Use the personal pronouns me, us, him, her, and them as subject complements or direct objects.

  • Identify the person of a pronoun: first, second, or third person.

  • Identify the gender of a pronoun: masculine, feminine, or neuter.

  • Distinguish subject pronouns I, you, he, she, it, we, and they from object pronouns me, you, him, her, it, us, and them.

  • Identify and form possessive pronouns.

  • Identify and use reflexive and intensive pronouns.

Adjectives

  • Identify adjectives and their functions.

  • Form proper adjectives from proper nouns (e.g., Swedish from Sweden).

  • Identify definite and indefinite articles.

  • Identify and use the correct forms of demonstrative adjectives.

  • Identify and use possessive adjectives.

  • Form positive, comparative, and superlative adjectives.

Verbs

  • Identify and use action verbs, being verbs, linking verbs, and auxiliary verbs.

  • Write questions and negative statements using main and helping verbs.

  • Identify and form principal parts of verbs (present, present participle, past, past participle).

  • Identify and use regular and irregular verbs.

  • Identify and use simple tenses: present, past, future.

  • Identify and form the present and past progressive tense.

  • Identify transitive verbs and direct objects in sentences.

  • Identify intransitive verbs and distinguish from transitive verbs.

  • Use singular verbs with singular subjects, and plural verbs with plural subjects.

  • Form and correctly use principal parts of break, see, go, choose, and take.

  • Correctly use:

    • is, am, are, was, were

    • do and does

    • there is and there are

  • Correctly use forms of:

    • let and leave

    • teach and learn

    • lie and lay

    • sit and set

Adverbs

  • Identify and use adverbs of time, place, and manner.

  • Form comparative and superlative adverbs.

  • Identify adverbs as positive, comparative, or superlative.

  • Use good and well; their and there; real and very; to, too, and two; and no, not, and never correctly in sentences.

Prepositions, Conjunctions, and Interjections

  • Identify prepositions and prepositional phrases in sentences.

  • Select the correct preposition to complete a sentence.

  • Correctly use between and among, and from and off.

  • Identify prepositional phrases as adjectival or adverbial.

  • Identify objects of prepositions.

  • Identify and use conjunctions.

  • Use conjunctions to connect two sentences.

  • Use appropriate interjections to introduce sentences.

Vocabulary and Word Study

  • Use context to determine and develop definitions for unknown words.

  • Compare and correct personal definitions using dictionary definitions.

  • Use online and print dictionaries, synonyms, antonyms, homonyms, and word origin clues to aid in comprehension and mastery of vocabulary.

  • Create personal relationships with words through original sentences and proper use of words.

  • Understand and apply word definitions.

  • Retell, paraphrase, and explain what a speaker has said.

  • Use techniques for effective oral presentations (e.g., stand straight and tall; keep your hands at your sides; speak with expression in a loud, clear voice; use complete sentences and proper grammar)

  • Maintain purposeful discussion (agree and disagree constructively, state ideas clearly and fully using complete sentences and proper grammar, synthesize and build on others' ideas, explain, and defend ideas).

  • Read prose and poetry aloud with fluency, rhythm, and expression.

  • Connect and relate prior experiences, insights, and ideas to those of a speaker.

COMPOSITION

Writing as a Process

  • Understand and practice writing as a process (prewriting, drafting, revising, proofreading, publishing).

Writing a Memoir (A Personal Narrative)

  • Understand the elements of the memoir: plot, characters, setting, and theme.

  • Plan and organize events to be related in the memoir.

  • Distinguish between first person and third person point of view.

  • Use imagery and simile to describe a place or scene.

  • Write realistic dialogue.

  • Write, revise, and proofread a memoir.

Writing a Research Paper

  • Choose and narrow a topic for a research paper.

  • Find sources for a research paper.

  • Gather information using library and Internet sources.

  • Prepare bibliography cards.

  • Paraphrase sources and understand how to avoid plagiarism.

  • Write a thesis statement.

  • Prepare a formal outline for the research paper.

  • Compile a bibliography.

  • Write an effective introduction and conclusion.

  • Develop paragraphs with a topic sentence and supporting details that relate to the topic.

  • Revise the research paper to improve content, organization, clarity, and word choices, and proofread to correct errors.

Writing to a Prompt

  • Identify four types of prompts: narrative, expository, persuasive, and descriptive.

  • Decide what type of writing a prompt requires.

  • Identify elements of a paragraph: topic sentence, body (supporting details), and closing sentence.

  • Plan the beginning, middle, and end of a response to a prompt.

  • Practice writing in response to writing prompts under timed conditions.

Writing an Editorial

  • Analyze an editorial.

  • Distinguish fact from opinion.

  • Locate facts and other information to support opinions in an editorial.

  • Anticipate and respond to opposing arguments.

  • Revise with special attention to controlling tone and eliminating unnecessary attacks, unsupported judgments, and overstatements.

Writing a Speech

  • Identify different purposes for a speech (e.g., to inform, persuade, or entertain).

  • Write a thesis statement for an informative speech.

  • Use the writing process to write a speech.

  • Deliver the speech to an audience.

Writing Business Letters

  • Identify the parts of a business letter.

  • Understand the audience and purpose of the business letter.

  • Write and revise a business letter of complaint or a request for information.

Writing a Compare-and-Contrast Essay

  • Analyze an essay written to compare and contrast.

  • Use graphic organizers to plan topics to compare and contrast.

  • Prepare an outline for a compare-and-contrast essay.

  • Write, revise, and proofread a compare-and-contrast essay.

Writing a Character Sketch

  • Gather information through observation or recall for a character sketch.

  • Write dialogue to include in a character sketch.

  • Use specific details and examples to illustrate the subject's characteristics.

  • Write, revise, and proofread a character sketch.

Writing a Short Story (Optional)

  • Analyze a short story.

  • Describe the setting for a story.

  • Select and describe characters for a story.

  • Plan a conflict and the plot of a story.

  • Write, revise, and proofread a short story.

Writing a Book Review (Optional)

  • Summarize the book to be reviewed.

  • Gather information about the author.

  • Evaluate the plot, characters, and setting.

  • Prepare an outline for the book review.

  • Write, revise, and proofread the review.

SPELLING

  • Words with two vowels together, each having its own sound; prefix uni–; and base word grace

  • Words with /k/ sound spelled ch, prefix quad–, and base word scholar

  • The schwa sound spelled a at the beginning and end of words, prefix oct–, base word deficit

  • Words with the endings tion and sion, prefix kilo–, root gradu

  • Word relationships, prefix milli–, and root prehend

  • Words with /j/ spelled dge, soft c and g, prefix a–, and root tox

  • Word relationships, prefix super–, and root tech

  • Abbreviations, prefix para–, and root cour

  • Contractions, prefix multi–, and root meter

  • Words with /shun/ spelled tion and sion, prefix a– and root thermo

  • Words with /sh/ spelled ch, /k/ spelled que, /s/ spelled sc, prefix out–, and base word operate

  • Word relationships, prefix over–, and root brev

  • Words often confused in spelling, prefix ir–, and root bell

  • Difficult plurals, prefix im–, and root just

  • Adding the /shun/ ending spelled tion and sion, prefix il–, and root ini

  • Words with tion and sion, suffix –eer, and root liber

  • Words with tion and sion, suffix –ess, and root cline

  • Adding vowel suffixes, suffix –ical, and root cert

  • Adding suffixes, suffix –ism, and root grat

  • Adding vowel suffixes, suffix –ify, and root domus

  • Abbreviations, suffix –or, and root mand

  • Word relationships, suffix –ary, and root ques

  • Compound words, suffix –ant, and root min

  • Words with tion, suffix –worthy, and root flam

  • Endings tion and sion, suffix –ward, and root nov

  • Words often confused in spelling, suffix –some, and root mob

  • Words within words, suffix –like, and root term

  • Words with two pronunciations and two meanings, suffix –ish, and base word present

  • Compound words, suffix –ern, and root turb

  • Endings tion and sion, suffix –dom, and root vict

 

6th Grade – 8th Grade:

Intermediate English B:

Intermediate Language Skills B offers a systematic approach to the development of written and oral communication skills, designed to give students the essential building blocks for expressing their own ideas in standard (or formal) English.

COMPOSITION

This course builds on the skills introduced in Intermediate Composition A. In this writing program, students continue to practice writing essays in various genres. They analyze the conventional five-paragraph essay structure, and then move on to learn the form and structure of a variety of narrative, informative, and persuasive essays they will encounter in their academic careers, including essays of definition, cause-and-effect essays, and research papers.

In writing each essay, students go through a process of planning, organizing, and revising, and they learn to examine their own writing with a critical eye, paying attention to ideas, organization, structure, style, and correctness. Throughout the course, students write in response to prompts as well as write short and longer research projects. In addition to writing, students will hone presentation skills and incorporate multimedia into their work. Students will use technology to draft, revise, and publish their compositions.

Introduction to the Essay

  • Parts of an Essay

  • Essay Decisions

  • Essay Conventions

  • Writing an Essay

Autobiographical Incident

  • What Is an Autobiographical Incident?

  • Prewriting: Planning to Write About an Autobiographical Incident

  • Drafting: Writing About an Autobiographical Incident

  • Revising, Proofreading, and Publishing

Definition Essay

  • What Is a Definition Essay?

  • Prewriting: Planning a Definition Essay

  • Drafting: Writing a Definition Essay

  • Revising: Revising a Definition Essay

  • Proofreading and Publishing

Letter to the Editor

  • What Is a Letter to the Editor?

  • Prewriting: Logical Thinking

  • Prewriting: Choosing a Topic

  • Prewriting: Gathering Information

  • Prewriting: Planning the Letter

  • Drafting

  • Revising a Letter to the Editor

  • Proofreading and Publishing a Letter to the Editor

Research Report

  • What Is a Research Report?

  • Covering the Basics

  • Prewriting: Finding Information

  • Prewriting: Finding More Information

  • Prewriting: Taking Notes

  • Prewriting: Organizing the Information

  • Drafting

  • Revising

  • Bibliography

  • Proofreading

  • Publishing

Propaganda

  • What Is Propaganda?

  • Prewriting: Logical Fallacies and Emotional Appeals

  • Prewriting: Planning an Article

  • Drafting: Writing an Article

  • Revising, Proofreading, and Publishing

Cause-and-Effect Essay

  • What Is a Cause-and-Effect Essay?

  • Prewriting: Different Kinds of Cause-and-Effect Relationships

  • Prewriting: Planning a Cause-and-Effect Essay

  • Drafting: Writing a Cause-and-Effect Essay

  • Revising and Proofreading

  • Publishing: Planning a Presentation

  • Publishing: Practicing a Presentation

  • Publishing: Delivering a Presentation

Fictional Narrative

  • What Is a Fictional Narrative?

  • Prewriting: Parts of a Story

  • Prewriting: Character Development

  • Prewriting: Planning a Fictional Narrative

  • Drafting

  • Revising

  • Proofreading and Publishing

GRAMMAR, USAGE, AND MECHANICS

The Grammar, Usage, and Mechanics program addresses many grammatical topics, with reinforcement activities in sentence analysis, sentence structure, and proper punctuation. Students analyze syntax and diagram sentences to understand how words, phrases, and clauses function in relation to each other. Frequent exercises and regular practice help students absorb the rules so they can confidently apply them in their own writing.

Parts of Speech Review

  • Prepositions

  • Prepositional Phrases

  • Preposition or Adverb?

  • Conjunctions and Interjections

Kinds of Complements

  • Direct Objects

  • Indirect Objects

  • Predicate Nominatives

  • Predicate Adjectives

  • Sentence Diagramming and Review

Phrases

  • Adjective Phrases

  • Prepositional Phrases

  • Misplaced Adjective Phrases

  • Adverb Phrases

Verbal and Verbal Phrases

  • Participles

  • Participle or Verb?

  • Participial Phrases

  • Misplaced Participial Phrases

  • Infinitives

  • Infinitive Phrases

  • Sentence Diagramming

Clauses

  • Independent and Subordinate Clauses

  • Adverb Clauses

  • Adjective Clauses

  • Adverb and Adjective Clauses

  • Simple and Compound Sentences

  • Compound Sentence or Compound Verb

  • Complex Sentences

  • Sentence Diagramming and Review

Sentence Fragments and Run-Ons

  • Fragments

  • Other Sentence Errors

Using Verbs

  • Regular and Irregular Verbs

  • Principal Parts of Verbs

  • Six Problem Verbs

  • Verb Tenses

  • Uses of Tenses

  • Conjugation of a Verb

  • Tense Shifts

Using Pronouns

  • Pronouns in the Nominative Case

  • Pronouns in the Objective Case

  • Pronouns in the Possessive Case

  • Pronoun Problems and Pronoun Antecedents

  • Pronoun Problem: Who or Whom?

  • Pronouns and Their Antecedents

Subject and Verb Agreement

  • Agreement of Subjects and Verbs

  • Common Agreement Problems

  • Agreement Problems with Pronouns

Using Adjectives and Adverbs

  • Comparison of Adjectives and Adverbs

  • Problems with Modifiers

Capital Letters

  • Rules of Capital Letters

  • More Proper Nouns

  • Other Uses of Capital Letters

End Marks and Commas

  • End Marks and the Period

  • Commas That Separate

  • More Uses of the Comma

  • More Commas That Enclose

Italics and Quotation Marks

  • Uses of Italics and Quotation Marks

  • Direct Quotations

  • Other Uses of Quotation Marks

Other Punctuation

  • Apostrophes

  • Possessive Forms of Pronouns

  • Other Uses of the Apostrophe

  • Semicolons

  • Colons

  • Hyphens to Divide Words

  • Other Uses of Hyphens

VOCABULARY

The Vocabulary from Classical Roots program builds knowledge of Greek and Latin words that form the roots of many English words, especially the polysyllabic terms that sometimes cause students to stumble. Throughout this program, students will define and use words with Greek and Latin roots and use word origins and derivations to determine the meaning of new words, as they increase their own vocabularies and develop valuable test-taking skills.

Motion

  • Latin roots per, fero, ferre, tuli latum; tendo, tendere, tetendi, tensum

  • Latin roots sub, torqueo, torquere, torsi, tortum; verso, versare, versavi, versatum

Position

  • Latin roots ex, pono, ponere, posui, positum

  • Latin roots extra, medius, sequor, sequi, secutum

Joining

  • Latin roots cum, teneo, tenere, tenui, tentum

  • Latin roots apo, apere, epi, aptum; jungo, jungere, junxi, junctum; stringo, stringere, strinxi, strictum

Separation

  • Latin roots ab, cerno, cernere, crevi, cretum; frango, frangere, fregi, fractum

  • Greek roots luein, lutos

  • Latin roots super, caedo, caedere, cecidi, caesum; solvo, solvere, solvi, solutum

Sight

  • Latin roots re, ostendo, ostendere, ostendi, ostensum; video, videre, vidi, visum

  • Latin roots specto, spectare, spectavi, spectatum; vigilo, vigilare, vigilavi, vigilatum

The Other Senses

  • Latin roots ad, oleo, olere, olui; sono, sonare, sonui, sonitum; voco, vocare, vocavi, vocatum

  • Latin roots sentio, sentire, sensi, sensum; tango, tangere, tetigi, tactum

Emotions

  • Latin roots pro, jocus, suavis, festus

  • Greek root zelos

  • Latin roots doleo, dolere, dolui, dolitum, ira, volo, velle, volui

The Shape of Things

  • Greek root kuklos

  • Latin roots circum, orbis, orbita, figura

  • Greek root iedos

  • Latin roots fingo, fingere, finxi, fictum; rota, rotundus, cavea

You might choose to split the lessons into smaller segments. The online lesson tracking system will allow you to pick up wherever you left off in any given lesson.

 

Literary Analysis and Composition:

COMPOSITION

This strand builds on the skills introduced in Intermediate Composition courses. In this writing program, students continue to practice writing narrative, informative, and persuasive essays in various genres and increasingly focus on model essays from noteworthy authors. Some units use the literature lessons as a springboard and thereby reinforce the connection between reading for meaning and writing to communicate one's own ideas. Students learn the form and structure of a variety of essays they will encounter in their academic careers, including memoirs (narrative), literary essays, compare-and-contrast essays, long research papers and shorter research projects, descriptive writing, and arguments. In writing each essay, students go through a process of planning, organizing, and revising, and they learn to examine their own writing with a critical eye, paying attention to ideas, organization, structure, style, and correctness. Throughout the course, students write in response and use technology to draft, revise, and publish their work. Students hone effective presentation skills and incorporate multimedia elements into their work.

Memoir

  • Analysis of a Memoir: Examining Mark Twain's "A Cub Pilot"

  • Planning a Memoir

  • Writing a Memoir I

  • Writing a Memoir II

  • Revising a Memoir

  • Proofreading and Publishing a Memoir

Literary Essay: Character

  • What Is Literary Essay About Character?

  • Planning a Literary Essay About Character

  • Focusing and Organizing a Literary Essay About Character

  • Writing a Literary Essay About Character

  • Revising a Literary Essay About Character

  • Proofreading and Publishing a Literary Essay About Character

Argument

  • What Is an Argument?

  • Recognizing Logical Fallacies and Emotional Appeals

  • Choosing a Topic and Gathering Information

  • Planning and Organizing the Argument

  • Writing an Argument

  • Revising an Argument

  • Proofreading and Publishing an Argument

Making Us See: Description

  • Seeing with the Mind's Eye I: Analysis of Excerpt from Hamlin Garland's Boy Life on the Prairie

  • Seeing with the Mind's Eye II: Analysis of Excerpt from Henry David Thoreau's Walden

  • Seeing with the Mind's Eye III: Analysis of an Excerpt from Annie Dillard's Pilgrim at Tinker Creek

  • Recognizing Descriptive Language

  • Planning a Descriptive Essay

  • Writing a Descriptive Essay

  • Polishing a Descriptive Essay

Research Paper

  • What Is a Research Paper?

  • Taking Notes I

  • Taking Notes II

  • Organizing the Information

  • Writing a Research Paper I

  • Writing a Research Paper II

  • Creating a Works Cited Page

  • Revising a Research Paper

  • Proofreading and Publishing a Research Paper

  • Revising

  • Bibliography

  • Proofreading

  • Publishing

Literary Essay: Theme

  • What Is a Literary Essay About Theme?

  • Planning a Literary Essay About Theme

  • Writing a Literary Essay About Theme

  • Revising a Literary Essay About Theme

  • Proofreading and Publishing a Literary Essay About Theme

Literary Essay: Compare and Contrast

  • What Is a Compare and Contrast Essay About Literature?

  • Planning a Compare and Contrast Essay About Literature

  • Organizing a Compare and Contrast Essay About Literature

  • Writing a Compare and Contrast Essay About Literature

  • Polishing a Compare and Contrast Essay About Literature

Great Speeches and Oratory

  • Reading, Listening to, and Analyzing a Speech I: The Gettysburg Address

  • Reading, Listening to, and Analyzing a Speech I: I Have a Dream

  • Planning a Speech

  • Writing a Speech

  • Revising a Speech

  • Practicing and Delivering a Speech

GRAMMAR, USAGE, AND MECHANICS

How can a modifier be misplaced or dangling? Is there a positive to appositives? What is a gerund? The Grammar, Usage, and Mechanics (GUM) course addresses these and many other topics, with reinforcement activities in sentence analysis, sentence structure, and proper punctuation. Students analyze syntax and diagram sentences to understand how words, phrases, and clauses function in relation to each other. Skills updates, frequent exercises, cumulative reviews, and regular practice help students absorb the rules so they can confidently apply them in their own writing. The Barrett Kendall Language Handbook provides exercises and a ready resource for grammar rules and conventions.

Sentences, Fragments, and Run-Ons

  • Sentences

  • Fragments

  • Run-Ons

Complements

  • Direct Objects and Indirect Objects

  • Predicate Nominatives and Predicate Adjectives

Phrases

  • Prepositional Phrases

  • Misplaced Modifiers and Appositives

Verbal and Verbal Phrases

  • Participles and Participial Phrases

  • Gerund

  • Gerund Phrases

  • Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases

  • Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers

Clauses

  • Independent and Subordinate Clauses

  • Adverb Clauses

  • Adjective Clauses

  • Functions of Relative Pronouns

  • Noun Clauses

  • Sentence Structure

Using Verbs

  • Principal Parts of Verbs

  • Verb Tense

  • Shift in Tense

  • Active and Passive Voice

Using Pronouns

  • Pronoun Case

  • Pronoun Problems

  • Pronouns in Comparison

  • Indefinite Pronoun Antecedents and Antecedent Problems

Subject and Verb Agreement

  • Agreement of Subjects and Verbs

  • Common Agreement Problems

  • Other Agreement Problems

Using Adjectives and Adverbs

  • Comparison of Adjectives and Adverbs

Capital Letters

  • Capitalization

  • More Capitalization

End Marks and Commas

  • End Marks

  • Commas That Separate

  • Comma That Enclose

  • More Commas That Enclose

Italics and Quotation Marks

  • Uses of Italics and Quotation Marks

  • Direct Quotations

  • Other Uses of Quotation Marks

Other Punctuation

  • Apostrophes

  • Semicolons

  • Colons and Hyphens

  • Dashes and Parentheses

Vocabulary

Are you implacable or placid? Are you apathetic or empathic? Though these pairs of words are nearly opposite in their meanings, they are closely related and easily defined by students who know the Latin root, —"pacere" — (to please) and the Greek root pathos (suffering). K12's Vocabulary program uses the Vocabulary from Classical Roots program (from Educator's Publishing Service) to build knowledge of Greek and Latin words that form the roots of many English words. The purpose of the program is to help students unlock the meanings of words from classical roots, not necessarily to memorize lists of difficult or obscure vocabulary words. These polysyllabic words are those that frequently cause students to stumble and often appear on standardized tests. Throughout this program, students will define and use words with Greek and Latin roots and use word origins and derivations to determine the meaning of new words, as they increase their own vocabularies and develop valuable test-taking skills.

The Person

  • Latin roots humanas, homo, vir, ego, genos, genus, generis

  • Greek roots anthropos; gyne, femina, autos, gens, gentis

Personal Relationships

  • Latin roots matrix, pater, frater, avunculus, familia, uxor, puer, morior, nascor

  • Greek roots pais, sum, esse, fui, futurum, thanatos

Feelings

  • Latin roots amo, amicus, odium, pax, cupio, placere, placare

  • Greek roots philos, phileo, phobos, pathos, miso, dys

Creature Comforts

  • Latin roots domus, dominus, dormio, somnus, lavare, vestis, coquere, vorare, melis, sal, bibere, potare, ludere

The Head

  • Latin roots caput, cerebrum, facies, frons, oris, oratum, dens, gurges

  • Greek roots odon

The Body

  • Latin roots caro, collum, corpus, cor, os, dorsum, nervus, sanguis, sedeo

  • Greek roots derm, gaster

The Hands

  • Latin roots manus, dextra, digitus, flecto, rapio, plico, prehendo, pes, gradior, ambulo, calcitro, sto, stio, sisto

  • Greek root podos

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